In the seventies, the scientific community began
to warn of the problems faced by the planet. In 1972, the foundations
of the Rio Summit were lain in the first world meeting on the Environment
("Conference on the Human Environment"), which was held
in Stockholm with the participation of 113 countries. The conclusions
of this conference were reported in the Brundtland Report, entitled
Our Common Future, directed by Gro
Harland Brundtland, ex Prime Minister of Norway.
The UN established the
World Commission on the Environment and Development in 1983.
Four years later, in its historic report, it warned that humankind
must change its ways of life and commerce if it does not wish to
live a future era of unacceptable human suffering and ecological
In 1989, the UN began planning
the Conference on the Environment and Development, in which
the principles for reaching a Sustainable Development would be drawn.
For two years, numerous experts from all over the world threw themselves
into the task of arranging agreements that would pave the way to
Rio de Janeiro.
In Rio, June 1992, the First
World Summit was held. Two international agreements were
reached, two declarations of principles and a vast program of action
about Sustainable World Development were formulated. One of these
is the Program 21, a prototype
and model of principles for achieving Sustainable Development
from a social, economic and ecological point of view.
In June 1997, the Second
Earth Summit (Rio +5) was held in the UN headquarters in
New York, to think over the little that had been done of what had
been proposed in the first summit.
DEYNA, at the end of 1992, began
answering the call of Rio, looking for innovative answers to the
challenges that face our time, with the approach of the third
millennium, and the necessity of developing endogenous and
solid projects linked to running the planet.
DEYNA uses the
term Sustained and Ecoevolutionary
Development when referring to the territory where its General project
is applied. The term Sustainable
is perfectly adequate when used to describe the new model of development
for the future. Both are solidary with future generations.
is that which is not only economic but also humanistic, generation
spanning and in harmony with nature. It concerns the search for
a solution of world-wide validity,
complete and adequate for the characteristics of every space and
population treated, which will be capable of solving the multiple
and complex problems involved and
at the same time, lead to a new awareness and respect to the environment
and the way it is used (ecoethics).
A course already embarked upon.
A possible course, contrary to the present model of development,
which has not been embarked upon yet.
A sustainable economy
is one that obeys the basic principles of the laws of sustainability.
These principles are as real as those of aerodynamics or thermodynamics.
When someone designs a plane, he must observe the principles of
aerodynamics, otherwise his plane will either not fly or crash down.
In the same way, a system of sustainable or supportable economy
must observe the principles of sustainability as well, otherwise
it will not last long. The basic laws or principles of sustainability
are as stubborn and inflexible as the laws or principles of aerodynamics.
A society might violate these rules for some short period of time
or in the short run, but not in the long term. A fishing ground
may be overexploited for a short time without, fatal harm, if it
is left alone long enough to get back in shape. If it is overexploited
endlessly, though, it will collapse and disappear. Just like a plane
can lose some height for a short period of time without crashing
down, an economy can violate the principles of sustainability for
a short time without suffering a collapse.
The principles of sustainability are as simple
as the following examples:
- For a long time, the species in extinction cannot exceed the
species in evolution (biodiversity).
- Soil erosion cannot exceed the formation of soil.
- Wood destruction cannot exceed reafforestation.
- Carbon emissions cannot exceed the amount that can be absorbed
by the atmosphere.
- Fish captures cannot exceed the regeneration capacities of the
- Births of human beings must adapt themselves to the number of
dead and the available resources, etc.
that by concentrating actions on
just one province (Land, department or county) with a "standard
entity at a world level," that is to say, in a significant,
determined and limited territory (where for the most part environmental
actions have been sporadic, scattered and unconnected) the result
will be a very special territory,
protected from deterioration, which will favour a positive opinion
and massive favourable critics. Demonstrable effects will be achieved
in a short term, as well as exemplariness.
Interdependence is becoming increasingly higher
among different countries, and the planet looks increasingly rather
like a vehicle in which we all travel together through space. This
interdependence has made it more likely that those who thought they
were free from bounce effects will receive them, though. On account
of which not only "solidarity and harmony" are to be called
on in order to defend the common welfare,
but also selfishness can be called on as an argument.
Pliny's idea (Pliny the Elder: De Natura) is
that the factors which make up the Creation enrich and reinforce
each other, and this becomes a very important idea in the world
where we live today. New guidelines of behaviour
are needed in children's education,for they will become the
citizens of tomorrow. The science of ecoethics
should be taught as something essential for mankind,
because we have repeatedly disobeyed the advices of Aristotelian
logic. The reason is that Nature
does not forgive. She is implacable with whoever acts against her.
Man has done so, is doing so, and
will keep on doing so if his interests or his ethics do not move
him. We hope that the argument of harmony will prevail, and that
is why we undertake this project.
It must be feasible, although it is ambitious, because it is necessary.
The path towards sustainable development
will smooth down as long as some concepts prevail
in our minds: "usufruct"
above "property," "equity"
above "justice," and "friendship"